Succinic acid News
Method of producing succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) and other chemicals using sucrose-containing feedstock
Alkenyl succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) derivatives as metal working agents
NOVEL RUMEN BACTERIA VARIANTS AND PROCESS FOR PREPARING SUCCINIC ACID EMPLOYING THE SAME
Bio-oil based biorefinery strategy for the production of succinic acid(cas:110-15-6)
Succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) production with reduced by-product formation in the fermentation of Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens using glycerol as a carbon source
An efficient succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) production process in a metabolically engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum strain
Economical succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) production from cane molasses by Actinobacillus succinogenes
2-Alkenyl and 2-alkynyl succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) N-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)imides
Efficacy of derivatives of 3-hydroxypyridine and succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) in diabetic patients with the diabetic foot.
The example of THERMOPLASTICALLY PROCESSABLE POLYURETHANES BASED ON SUCCINIC ACID(cas:110-15-6) PROPIONATES
THERMOPLASTICALLY PROCESSABLE POLYURETHANES BASED ON SUCCINIC ACID(cas:110-15-6) PROPIONATES
SUCCINIC ACID(cas:110-15-6) ALKYL ESTER MIXTURES USED AS PLASTICIZERS
Production of a Succinic Ester Mixture of the Invention in succinic acid(cas:110-15-6)
Biotechnology of succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) production and markets for derived industrial products
Succinic Acid(cas:110-15-6) as a Byproduct in a Corn-based Ethanol Biorefinery
Integration of succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) and ethanol production with potential application in a corn or barley biorefinery
Capture of carbon dioxide from ethanol fermentation by liquid absorption for use in biological production of succinic Acid(cas:110-15-6)
The Example of SYNERGISTIC COMPOSITIONS COMPRISING ERYTHROPOIETIN AND SUCCINIC ACID(cas:110-15-6) (SALT)
SYNERGISTIC COMPOSITIONS COMPRISING ERYTHROPOIETIN AND SUCCINIC ACID(cas:110-15-6) (SALT)
Alkanolamin salts of alkenyl succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) dialkyl semiamide corrosion inhibitors
Production of Succinic Acid(cas:110-15-6) by Use of Transformed Mannheimia
NOVEL GENE ENCODING FORMATE DEHYDROGENASES D & E AND METHOD FOR PREPARING SUCCINIC ACID(cas:110-15-6) USING THE SAM
High Silica Zeolites as an Alternative to Weak Base Adsorbents in Succinic Acid(cas:110-15-6) Recovery
Aconitic acid, gluconic acid and/or succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) taken alone or further together with sclareolide in enhancing the organoleptic properties of foodstuffs
Gene encoding formate dehydrogenases D & E and method for preparing succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) using the same
Thermoplastic copolyesters prepared from aromatic dicarboxylic acid substituted succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) or anhydride and a glycol and the use thereof in adhesives
The Example of Succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) derivative degradable chelants, uses and compositions thererof
Fluorine-containing alkylsuccinic acid(cas:110-15-6) diester, process for preparing the same and use thereof
The Example of Succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) derivative degradable chelants, uses and compositions thereof
Process for manufacturing ethanol and for recovering glycerol, succinic acid(cas:110-15-6), lactic acid, betaine, potassium sulfate, and free flowing distiller's dry grain and solubles or a solid fert
Antimicrobial sanitizing composition containing n-alkyl and n-alkenyl succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) and methods for use
A novel process for recovery of fermentation-derived succinic acid(cas:110-15-6): Process design and economic analysis
The convergent synthesis of poly(glycerol-succinic acid(cas:110-15-6)) dendritic macromolecules
Specific Physicochemical Properties of Succinic Acid(cas:110-15-6)
Discovery of a valuable property for succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) and other intermediary metabolites
The Example of manufacturing succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) and ammonium succinate solutions
Method of manufacturing succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) and ammonium succinate solutions
Production of (-)trans-2,3-epoxy succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) by fermentation
Synthesis and chain extension of poly( L -lactic acid- co -succinic acid(cas:110-15-6)- co -1,4-butene diol)
The Example polyadipamide polymer containing added succinic acid(cas:110-15-6)
Fiber of polyadipamide polymer containing added succinic acid(cas:110-15-6)
The Example of Method for purifying succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) from fermentation broth
The Background of Method for purifying succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) from fermentation broth
The EXAMPLE METHOD OF PURIFYING SUCCINIC ACID(cas:110-15-6) FROM FERMENTATION LIQUID
THE BACKGROUND of METHOD OF PURIFYING SUCCINIC ACID(cas:110-15-6) FROM FERMENTATION LIQUID
BioAmber signs 210,000 tpa contract for bio-based succinic acid(cas:110-15-6)
BASF and CSM plan succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) joint venture
Etching composition and etching process in succinic acid(cas:110-15-6)
Preparation and Application of Hybrid SBS Bipolar Membrane in Electro-Generation of HPAc and Succinic Acid(cas:110-15-6)
Increasing available NADH supply during succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) production by C orynebacterium glutamicum
Properties of biodegradable copolyesters of succinic acid(cas:110-15-6)-1,4-butanediol/succinic acid-1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol
Sugar-Based Ethanol Biorefinery: Ethanol, Succinic Acid(cas:110-15-6) and By-Product Production
JV partners tout packaging potential of bio-based succinic acid(cas:110-15-6)
Industrial systems biology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae enables novel succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) cell factory
Extraction Equilibria of Succinic Acid(cas:110-15-6) by Using Aqueous Two Phases System Containing Imidazolium Ionic Liquids and Salts
Abinitio and dielectric studies of succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) and maleic acid in 1,4-dioxane
Studies on Cross-linking of Succinic Acid(cas:110-15-6) with Chitosan/Collagen
The convergent synthesis of poly(glycerol-succinic acid(cas:110-15-6)) dendritic macromolecules
SOURCESUMMARY OF INVENTION:METHOD FOR PREPARING SUCCINIC ACID(cas:110-15-6) USING SUCROSE AS A CARBON
METHOD FOR PREPARING SUCCINIC ACID(cas:110-15-6) USING SUCROSE AS A CARBON SOURCE
Monoalkenyl-succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) mono-ester salts
Copolyesters having repeat units derived from succinic acid(cas:110-15-6)
Manufacture of aminoalkylidene succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) derivatives
Succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) derivatives and plant growth regulating compositions containing them
(2-heteroarylamino) succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) derivatives
Stereoselective preparation of 2-substituted succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) derivatives
Succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) derivatives and their use as lubricant additives
Skin-conditioning succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) derivatives
Method for preparing (R)-succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) derivatives
Process for manufacture of chiral succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) derivatives
Liquid detergent composition containing succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) derivatives
Process for the preparation of chiral succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) derivatives
Thio succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) derivatives and the use thereof
Preparation of polyalkenylsuccinic acid(cas:110-15-6) derivatives and their use as fuel and lubricant additives
Coupling of carbanions. Formation of succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) derivatives
The Example of preparing (R)-succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) derivatives
Method of preparing (R)-succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) derivatives
Succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) derivatives and their use as surfactants
The example of Protease inhibiting succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) derivatives
Protease inhibiting succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) derivatives
Radiolysis of succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) in aqueous solution
MEAT FLAVOR COMPOSITION CONTAINING SUCCINIC ACID(cas:110-15-6)
petroleum-based succinic acid(cas:110-15-6)
Succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) is an important chemical
The Example Succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) esters and hydraulic fluids therefrom
Succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) esters and hydraulic fluids therefrom
The Hydrolysis of Succinic Acid(cas:110-15-6)
Hydrolysis of Succinic acid(cas:110-15-6)
Bio-succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) can be utilized in many fields
Azelis to distribute bio-succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) in parts of Europe
Liquid detergent composition containing succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) derivatives
Succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) and compounded material
Ethoxylated esters of succinic acid(cas:110-15-6)
Succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) esters and hydraulic fluids therefrom
Screening for cocrystals of succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) and 4-aminobenzoic
The development of succinic acid(cas:110-15-6)
Succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) can stimulate neural system recovery
Succinic Acid(cas:110-15-6) and Succinic Anhydride
Mixed alkyl benzyl esters of succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) used as plasticizers
The functions of succinic acid(cas:110-15-6)
Substrates for succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) production
Succinic Acid(cas:110-15-6) Production From Synthetic Sugar Mixture
Succinic Acid(cas:110-15-6) Production Utilizing Industrial Hydrolysate
Succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) and iron oxides deposits
How succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) can be produced in a cost-effective way
Method to produce succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) from raw hydrolysates
Sustainable Production of Bio-based Succinic Acid(cas:110-15-6)
A ferric complex of a polyamino di-succinic acid(cas:110-15-6)
PURIFICATION OF SUCCINIC ACID(cas:110-15-6)
OFFSET PRINTING WITH ALKENYLSUCCINIC ACID(cas:110-15-6) COMPOUND
Deep vision of succinic acid(cas:110-15-6)
Increase of succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) production
Method for preparing ammonium salts of fumaric or succinic acid(cas:110-15-6)
Tris (hydroxymethyl) aminomethane salt of 2-mercapto succinic acid(cas:110-15-6)
Succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) and disodium succinate
How succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) effects our life
Valuable succinic acid(cas:110-15-6)
Succinic acid(cas:110-15-6)---treasurable organic acid
Succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) adsorption from fermentation broth and regeneration
SUCCINIC ACID(cas:110-15-6) CONTENT OF THE COTTON PLANT
Higher increase in succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) production
Succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) compounds
Succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) derivative degradable chelants, uses and compositions thereof
Succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) is widely used in our lives
One step recovery of succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) from fermentation broths by crystallization
Succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) production from wheat using a biorefining strategy
Method to produce succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) from raw hydrolysates
Succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) Production From Synthetic Sugar Mixture
Exploration into succinic acid(cas:110-15-6)
How succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) benefits your life
Succinic Acid(cas:110-15-6) Production Utilizing Industrial Hydrolysate
Growth experiments and succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) production
Succinic acid and disodium succinate
Studies on brain metabolism: Formation of succinic acid(cas:110-15-6)
Fermentation and purification process for succinic acid(cas:110-15-6)
Process for the production and purification of succinic acid(cas:110-15-6)
The Example:Process for producing succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) from sucrose
Process for producing succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) from sucrose
Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) production
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION:Process for producing succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) from sucrose
Succinic Acid(cas:110-15-6) C4H6O4
Brief Introduction of Succinic Acid(cas:110-15-6) (Butanedioic Acid)
What succinic acid(cas:110-15-6) is and how it benefits you

Succinic acid

Also called Butanedioec Acid, with relative molecular weight of 118.09g/mol and melting point of 185 and boiling point of 235, Succinic acid is often used to produce five heterocyclic compounds, melting in water and lightly melting in alcohol. This product is an important chemical material and has comprehensive use. For instance, in medical industry it can be used to synthesize sedative, antispasmer, antiplegm, antiphogistic, anrhoter, contraception and cancer-curing medicine,etc, and to produce dyestuff, alhydresin, glass fiber, strengthening plastic, on exchange resin and pesticide etc. in chemical industry. In addition, butanedioec acid can be used to analytical reagent, food iron strengthen and clean-sprinkling additive etc. Using the initiated electrical synthesized technique in home, and with high purity and low relling price, the product of our factory is the line medium of pharmacy, industrial plastic and, resin etc. This product has two series of industrial grade and refined grade. The industrial is up to the standard of the Chemical Department HG3-1102-77
The packing: Packed with the weave bag inside the plastic bag ,weight of per bag is 25kg, and the refined is 25kg or specified the packing.
Molecular formula: C4H6O4
Relative molecular weight: 118.0g/mol
Structural formula: (CH2)2(CO2H)2
M.P. : 185℃
B.P. : 235℃
Property: soluble in water,slightly soluble in alcohol.
Quality index: Q/SS01-2005
Specification:
Appearance
colorless to white crystal or white crystal powder
Assay%
≥99.5
Melting range (℃)
184.0~187.0
Water solutioin appearance
colorless transparent or basically colorless transparent
Chloride %
≤0.007
Sulphate (SO42-)%
≤0.02
Heavy metal (Pb2+)%
≤0.001
Ferrum content%
≤0.002
Potassium permanganate reducing substances
Qualified
Arsenic content (As2O3)
≤2PPM
Use: In the preparation of five-membered heterocyclic compound, which is a organic material widely used in pharmacy, chemical industry etc.
Packing: In woven bag lined with plastic bag,net weight 25kg; or compound bag lined with plastic bag, net weight 25kg; or upon request.

Succinic acid is a dicarboxylic acid with chemical formula (CH2)2(CO2H)2. It is a white, odorless solid. In an aqueous solution, it ionizes to anions (that is, conjugates to a conjugate base) called succinate, which plays a role in the citric acid cycle, an energy-yielding process in all living organisms. As a radical group it is called a succinyl group. The name derives from Latin succinum, meaning amber, from which the acid may be obtained.

The following form is introducing the acid-base dissociation constants of the chemical succinic acid. And the data it provided is applying to dilute aqueous solutions, which are showed in the form of pKa, which is the negative of the logarithm of the acid dissociation constant Ka. (All the detailed infomation are provided by the Anhui Sunsing Chemicals Co.,Ltd., one leading succinic acid supplier in China.)
Succinic acid Details
ProName: Succinic acid (110-15-6)  CasNo: 110-15-6
Succinic acid Appearance: colorless to white crystal or white cr...
Succinic acid Application: used in pharm, dyement
Succinic acid DeliveryTime: within one week after confirm the orde...
Succinic acid PackAge: 25kg woven bag/25kg net bag /25kg drum
Port: Shanghai, Chizhou
ProductionCapacity: 300-400 Metric Ton/Month
Succinic acid Purity: ≥99.5%
Succinic acid Storage: keep under seal in cool , ventilated a...
Succinic acid Transportation: by sea or bt air
Succinic acid LimitNum: 1000 Kilogram

Introduction of Succinic acid
Succinic acid, with its cas register number 110-15-6, has its chemical formula of C4H6O4 and has its other names like Butanedioic acid, Amber acid and 1,2-Ethanedicarboxylic acid. In normal temperature and pressure, this chemical is being stable. Besides, it is soluble in water, ethanol and diethyl ether, while insoluble in chloroform and methylene chloride.
What is more, with its relative molecular weight of 118.0g/mol, Succinic acid belongs to the product categories of Succinic Series; alpha,omega-Alkanedicarboxylic Acids; Monofunctional & alpha, omega-Bifunctional Alkanes. Then it is not compatible with incompatible materials, reducing agents, bases, but you also need to keep it away from incompatible materials. When comes to its usage, it could be used externally for rheumatic aches and pains, and internally in inveterate gleets.
Detailed Information of Succinic acid
1). Properties of Succinic acid are as below:
(1)ACD/LogP: -0.933;
(2)# of Rule of 5 Violations: 0;
(3)ACD/LogD (pH 5.5): -2.49;
(4)ACD/LogD (pH 7.4): -5.47;
(5)ACD/BCF (pH 5.5): 1.00;
(6)ACD/BCF (pH 7.4): 1.00;
(7)ACD/KOC (pH 5.5): 1.00;
(8)ACD/KOC (pH 7.4): 1.00;
(9)#H bond acceptors: 4;
(10)#H bond donors: 2;
(11)#Freely Rotating Bonds: 3;
(12)Polar Surface Area: 74.6;
(13)Index of Refraction: 1.478;
(14)Molar Refractivity: 23.709 cm3;
(15)Molar Volume: 83.814 cm3;
(16)Polarizability: 9.399*10-24cm3;
(17)Surface Tension: 61.6800003051758 dyne/cm;
(18)Density: 1.409 g/cm3;
(19)Flash Point: 110.89oC;
(20)Enthalpy of Vaporization: 52.092 kJ/mol;
(21)Boiling Point: 236.149 oC at 760 mmHg;
(22)Vapour Pressure: 0.017000000923872 mmHg at 25oC.
2) Safety information of Succinic acid
For being one kind of irritant chemical, Succinic acid is irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin, and it may cause inflammation to the skin or other mucous membranes. Therefore, you should take the following measures to protect yourself from dangers. Firstly, wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection. And if in case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
3). The usage of Succinic acid in different fields
1)). In basic organic chemical raw materials, succinic acid could be used in painting, dyes, adhesive, medicine and so on; It could also be used in the usage of paper manufacturing and textile industry; This chemical could be applied as the raw material for lubricant, photographic chemicals and surface active agent.
2)).In medicine industry, Succinic acid could be used in the synthesis of sedative, diuretic, vitamin, contraceptive and cancer drugs.
3)). In chemical industry, Succinic acid could be used as the modifier of PH value when in electroplating, strengthening agent for plastics. And it is also applied in productions of spray paint, dyes, ion exchange resin, pesticide and so on. Secondly, this could be used as the intermediate of fine chemicals and organic synthesis. This chemical has wide application, including dyes, organic pigments, rubber vulcanization accelerator, alkyd resin, adhesive, lubricants, papermaking chemicals, plant growth promoters, photographic chemicals, surface active agent, ion/change resin, pesticide, fungicide and cosmetics.
4)). Succinic acid could be applied as one kind of standard reagent for Alkalimetry, buffer and contrast samples for gas chromatography. Besides, it could be used in the synthesis of dyes and paintings.
5)). In food industry, Succinic acid could be used with slight dose. It is one kind of food acids which is applied in the seasoning of wine, feed, and candy. And we would like to introduce one kind of food-grade Succinic acid, with the detailed information below:
Appearance colourless to white crystal or white crystal powder

Appearance
colourless to white crystal or white crystal powder
Content %
>=99.5
Melting range(oC)
185.0-190.5oC
Chloride %
<=0.007
sulfate(SO42-)%
<=0.02
heavy metal(Counted in Pb2+)%
<=0.001
iron content %
<=0.002
potassium permanganate (Reducing substances)
Qualified
Sn Content (As2O3)
<=2PPM
4). Four Different Succinic acid Production Methods
1)). The first production method of succinic acid: Paraffin could go through the reaction of oxidation to produce the carboxylic acid compound, and then have the separation to produce succinic acid.
2)). The second succinic acid production method: Maleic anhydride or fumaric acid could have the hydrogenation reaction with the catalyst to produce succinic acid, in the temperature of 130-140 oC; Secondly, go through the separation to get succinic acid
3)). The third production method: Crylic acid could react with carbonic oxide in the condition of catalytic agent to achieve the chemical succinic acid.
4)). The fourth succinic acid production method: Acetonitrile could be condensed to produce butanedinitrile with the existence of ferrous; And then the product is hydrolyzed to have succinic acid.
5). Packing and storage of Succinic acid :
1)). Package: 25kg/kraft bag; 500kg/plastic woven bags with inner or requirements according to customers
2)). Storage: Succinic acid should be stored sealed in a cool, dry place.
6). Succinic Acid Production Though Fermentation
The process of fermentation is receiving increasing attention as it can use renewable feedstocks as substrates and is seen as a more ‘green’ technology compared to chemical
production because of its renewable resource consumption and its limited impact on the environment [McKinlay et al., 2007]. The direction in which succinic acid production is heading can be summarized in a quote from McKinlay et al (2007). “Considering the current political and economical climate of crude oil-based industries, bio-based chemical production is in a position to complement and compete with existing petrochemical markets.”
Studies show that in the United States alone, 1 billion tons of biomass is available annually from the forestry and agricultural sectors without hindering food production [Perlack et al., 2005]. In a summary paper on the bio-based succinate industry in 2007, it was projected that with all the chemicals that can be synthesized with succinic acid as an intermediate, there exists a market of $15 billion US [McKinlay et al., 2007]. Estimates are that succinic acid could be produced through fermentation at $2.20 per kilogram at a production level of 5,000 tons per year, but the price would drop to $0.55 per kilogram if production levels reached 75,000 tons per year [Kang and Chang, 2005]. This upper production level may seem high, but this area of biochemical production will soon reduce the need for petrochemicals, so demand is expected to rise [Werpy and Petersen, 2004].
Succinic acid, when produced through fermentation, converts glucose to succinic acid along a portion of the reductive cycle of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle [Lee et al.,2002].Figure 2-3 depicts the reactions and enzymes in a typical fermentation process that transforms glucose to succinic acid.
First, glucose is converted to glucose-6-phosphate by hexokinase, which also adds phosphate to the molecule [McKinlay and Vieille, 2008]. Next, three separate enzymes that are
part of the Embden-Meyerhoff-Parnas glycolytic pathway lead to the production of phospho-enolpyruvate (PEP) [McKinlay and Vieille, 2008]. From PEP, the metabolic pathway can take one of two paths depending on the level of carbon dioxide available to the system [McKinlay et al.,2007]. If there is not enough CO2 present in the system, the preferred metabolic pathway creates end products of formate, ethanol and acetate, as shown on the right side of Figure 2-3. With ample supply of carbon dioxide to the system, the microorganism favours the production of succinic acid, the left half of Figure 2-3 [McKinlay et al., 2007]. Through this pathway, PEP is converted to oxaloacetate by PEP carboxykinase with the addition of CO2. This creates a 4-carbon chain, giving this series of reactions the name ‘C4 pathway’ [Lee et al., 2008]. The presence of high levels of carbon dioxide in the system strongly regulates the activity of PEPcarboxykinase [Zeikus et al., 1999]. The next reaction adds hydrogen to oxaloacetate to produce malate, which is converted to fumarate by fumarase with the removal of a water molecule [McKinlay and Vieille, 2008]. Finally, with the addition of hydrogen, succinate is formed in its ionic state, which is common as the pH range of production is above the pKA values for succinic acid [McKinlay and Vieille, 2008, Zeikus et al., 1999]. Succinic acid can be created by
protonating the succinate ion and producing the undissociated acid, which can be done in a number of different processes as discussed later. The theoretical yield of succinic acid from glucose plus carbon dioxide should be 1.17 moles per mole of glucose based on stoichiometry [McKinlay and Vieille, 2007].
This production method is not without unwanted by-products, however. In a study on the fermentation of wheat by Du et al. (2007), acetic acid and formic acid were moderate by-products produced in concentrations of 9.2g/L and 6.1g/L, respectively. These values are lower than the final concentration of succinic acid at 27.2g/L, but still make the separation process more time consuming and costly. Another major problem, shown on the metabolic pathway in Figure 2-3, is 14 that the conversion of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate takes place with the side reaction of converting PEP to pyruvate, an irreversible step [McKinlay and Vieille, 2008].
Succinic acid is also a highly reduced product, so throughout the fermentation process from glucose, four electrons are required. Therefore, in addition to carbon dioxide gas, hydrogen has been suggested as an addition to act as a reducing agent since reductant levels can limit the reaction rate [Lee et al., 1999, McKinlay and Vieille, 2008]. In studies done by Lee et al. (1999) the addition of hydrogen often decreased fermentation time, making the process more efficient.
However other studies make no mention of the addition of hydrogen gas and obtain comparable concentrations of succinic acid [Lee et al., 1999, Liu et al., 2008b]. Additionally, other reducing agents, including formate and Natural Red dye have been used with encouraging results [McKinlay and Vieille, 2008].
For bioproduction of succinic acid to be economical, major areas of biological process improvement need to be addressed, including limiting the use of low-cost amino acids, achieving high yield and concentration and using inexpensive carbon sources [Glassner and Datta, 1989].Fermentation requires both substrate and media which contain the energy sources, nutrients and minerals needed to ensure optimal productivity rates [Lee et al., 2002]. Depending on the microorganism chosen for the fermentation process, there are many carbon sources available. In the case of succinic acid production, most of the major sugars present in biomass can be used effectively, including glucose, fructose, arabinose and xylose [McKinlay and Vieille, 2007].
While the cost of these sugars is relatively low, other carbon sources have been examined, in attempts to lower the cost of fermentation. These other sugars range from glycerol and wood hydrolysate to waste whey from milk and cheese production [Bechthold et al., 2008, Wan et al,2008]. McKinlay and Vieille (2007) suggest that a succinate-based market through fermentation can be economical provided that the price of oil remains above $40 per barrel and if corn remains above $90 per ton. McKinlay et al. (2007) suggest that productivity goals of 150g/L and 5g/L·h are ideal production targets to compete with oil-based succinic acid production. 15 As succinic acid production from fermentation reaches a point where industrial facilities are being constructed, they will be located very near to supplies of biomass as well as carbon dioxide. An ideal location would be in close proximity to an ethanol plant. These production facilities could make their process more value-added by using their waste carbon dioxide and biomass, such as cane molasses and cheese whey for succinic acid production. Since fermentation of succinic acid is considered a CO2 fixing process, this would turn a by-product of the first process into an input for the second [Urbance et al., 2004, McKinlay and Vieille, 2007]. This coproduct system would also reduce greenhouse gases produced in the creation of ethanol and the
waste plant material could also be used as a substrate for succinic acid bioproduction [Zeikus etal., 1999]. As with any bioproduction, a biocatalyst is required and there are many microorganisms in existence that can perform this transformation.

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