Succinic Acid News1

Succinic acid, 99+%

CAS: 110-15-6

[110-15-6], HO2CCH2CH2CO2H, F.W. 118.09, m.p. 186-188°, b.p. 235°, f.p. 206°(402°F), d. 1.56, EINECS 203-740-4, RTECS WM4900000, BRN 1754069, MDL MFCD00002789, TSCA Yes

Hazard Codes: H303-H318

Precautionary code (EU): P261-P270-P271-P280-P304+P340-P305+P351+P338-P310-P403+P233-P501c

Hwang, H. J.; Choi, S. P.; Lee, S. Y.; Choi, J. I.; Han, S. J.; Lee, P. C. Dynamics of membrane fatty acid composition of succinic acid-producing Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens. J. Biotechnol. 2015, 193, 130-133.

Gunnarsson, I. B.; Kuglarz, M.; Karakashev, D.; Angelidaki, I. Thermochemical pretreatments for enhancing succinic acid production from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.). Bioresour. Technol. 2015, 182, 58-66.


Succinic acid is a dicarboxylic acid. The anion, succinate, is a component of the citric acid cycle capable of donating electrons to the electron transfer chain. Succinic acid is created as a byproduct of the fermentation of sugar. It lends to fermented beverages such as wine and beer a common taste that is a combination of saltiness, bitterness and acidity. Succinate is commonly used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. Succinate plays a role in the citric acid cycle, an energy-yielding process and is metabolized by succinate dehydrogenase to fumarate. Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) plays an important role in the mitochondria, being both part of the respiratory chain and the Krebs cycle. SDH with a covalently attached FAD prosthetic group, binds enzyme substrates (succinate and fumarate) and physiological regulators (oxaloacetate and ATP). Oxidizing succinate links SDH to the fast-cycling Krebs cycle portion where it participates in the breakdown of acetyl-CoA throughout the whole Krebs cycle. Succinate can readily be imported into the mitochondrial matrix by the n-butylmalonate- (or phenylsuccinate-) sensitive dicarboxylate carrier in exchange with inorganic phosphate or another organic acid, e.g. malate. (1) Mutations in the four genes encoding the subunits of succinate dehydrogenase are associated with a wide spectrum of clinical presentations (i.e.: Huntington's disease. (2). Succinate also acts as an oncometabolite. Succinate inhibits 2-oxoglutarate-dependent histone and DNA demethylase enzymes, resulting in epigenetic silencing that affects neuroendocrine differentiation.

Search term: 110-15-6 (Found by approved synonym)

Succinic acid

Molecular Formula:C4H6O4

Average mass:118.088 Da

Monoisotopic mass118.026611 Da

ChemSpider ID1078

Appearance:Powder or crystalline or granules

Physical State:Solid

Storage:Store at room temperature

Melting Point:185-190° C

Boiling Point:235° C

Anti-Biotin Antibody (33): sc-101339

Biotin, a water-soluble B complex vitamin, is required by all organisms but can only be synthesized by yeasts, molds, algaes, some plant species and bacteria. Biotin, a tetrahydrothiophene ring fused with an ureido (tetrahydro-imidizalone) ring, is important in the catalysis of essential metabolic reactions to synthesize fatty acids, to metabolize leucine and in gluconeogenesis. Human intestinal bacteria generally produce in excess of the body′s daily Biotin requirement. The occurrence of Biotin in nature is widespread and, although extremely rare, Biotin deficiency is associated with dermatitis, nausea, loss of hair, depression, muscle pain, and reproductive disturbances.


1,2-Ethanedicarboxylic acid

1,4-Butanedioic acid

110-15-6 [RN]

203-740-4 [EINECS]

4-02-00-01908 [Beilstein]

Acide butanedioique [French]

Acide succinique [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]

Acido succinico [Italian]

ácido succínico [Spanish]

ácido succínico [Portuguese]

acidum succinicum [Latin]

Bernsteinsaeure [German]

Bernsteins?ure [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]

Butanedioic acid [ACD/Index Name]

HOOC-CH2-CH2-COOH [Formula]

Kyselina jantarova [Czech]

MFCD00002789 [MDL number]


Succinic acid [ACD/IUPAC Name] [Wiki]

Succinic acid

Ηλεκτρικ? οξ? [Modern Greek (1453-)]

Янтарная кислота [Russian]

コハク酸 [Japanese]

琥珀酸 [Chinese]

14493-42-6 [RN]

152556-05-3 [RN]

21668-90-6 [RN]

61128-08-3 [RN]

acidum succinicum

amber acid







CpeE protein


Dihydrofumaric acid

Ethanedicarboxylic acid

Ethylene dicarboxylic acid

Ethylene succinic acid



Fumaric acid [Wiki]


Kyselina jantarova


Maleic acid [Wiki]

Sal succini



Succinic acid 100 ?μg/mL in Acetonitrile

succinic acid(free acid)

Succinic acid, ACS grade


succunic acide

Wormwood acid

For Research Use Only. Not Intended for Diagnostic or Therapeutic Use.

186-188 °C Alfa Aesar

185 °C Indofine [15-0400] , [15-0400]

185 °C OU Chemical Safety Data (No longer updated) More details

184-189 °C Merck Millipore 3821, 822260

185 °C Jean-Claude Bradley Open Melting Point Dataset 16121

186.5 °C Jean-Claude Bradley Open Melting Point Dataset 16582

188 °C Jean-Claude Bradley Open Melting Point Dataset 13519, 22290, 28530

187 °C Jean-Claude Bradley Open Melting Point Dataset 8429

186-188 °C Alfa Aesar A12084, 33272

188-190 °C SynQuest

184-186 °C Oakwood

184-186 °C (Literature) LabNetwork (old) LN00193188

185 °C Indofine [15-0400] , [15-0400] , [15-0400]

184-185 °C FooDB FDB001931

188-190 °C SynQuest 2121-1-24

184-186 °C Cayman Chemical CM247712

184-186 °C Chemenu CM247712

184-186 °C Sigma-Aldrich ALDRICH-134384

185 °C Kaye & Laby (No longer updated)

184-186 °C Oakwood 104604, 239121

Toxicity Profile

Route of Exposure

Eye contact, Inhalation, Ingestion.

Mechanism of Toxicity

Succinate can inhibit the activities of α-KG–dependent oxygenases (KDMs) and the TET family of 5-methlycytosine (5mC) hydroxylases. Succinate also mediates allosteric inhibition of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs). Inhibition of HIF PHDs leads to activation of HIF-mediated pseudohypoxic response, whereas inhibition of KDMs and TET family of 5mC hydroxylases causes epigenetic alterations that ultimately cause cancer. Succination of KEAP1 in FH deficiency results in the constitutive activation of the antioxidant defense pathway mediated by NRF2, conferring a reductive milieu that promotes cell proliferation. Succination of the Krebs cycle enzyme Aco2 impairs aconitase activity in Fh1-deficient MEFs. Succination also causes irreversible inactivation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH).


Succinic acid can be converted into fumaric acid by oxidation via succinate dehydrogenase.

Toxicity Values

Acute oral toxicity (LD50): 2260 mg/kg [Rat].

Lethal Dose

Not Available

Carcinogenicity (IARC Classification)Not listed by IARC. Has been implicated in oncogenesis (17).


Succinic acid is a precursor to some specialized polyesters. It is also a component of some alkyd resins. Succinic acid is used in the food and beverage industry, primarily as an acidity regulator. It is also sold as a food additive and dietary supplement, and is generally recognized as safe by the US FDA.

Minimum Risk Level

Not Available

Health Effects


Acute Exposure: the clinical signs of acute toxicity are weakness and diarrhea.


EYES: irrigate opened eyes for several minutes under running water. INGESTION: do not induce vomiting. Rinse mouth with water (never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person). Seek immediate medical advice. SKIN: should be treated immediately by rinsing the affected parts in cold running water for at least 15 minutes, followed by thorough washing with soap and water. If necessary, the person should shower and change contaminated clothing and shoes, and then must seek medical attention. INHALATION: supply fresh air. If required provide artificial respiration.


Fatty acid

Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives

Carboxylic acid

Organic oxygen compound

Organic oxide

Hydrocarbon derivative

Organooxygen compound

Carbonyl group

Aliphatic acyclic compound

Succinic acid use and synthesis method

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